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Effects of Puberty Blockers and Cross-Sex Hormones on Bone Health

Biggs, M. (2021). Revisiting the effect of GnRH analogue treatment on bone mineral density in young adolescents with gender dysphoria. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM, 34(7), 937–939. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2021-0180


Schagen et al., (2020). Bone Development in Transgender Adolescents Treated With GnRH Analogues and Subsequent Gender-Affirming Hormones. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(12), dgaa604. https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa604


Lee et al., (2020). Low Bone Mineral Density in Early Pubertal Transgender/Gender Diverse Youth: Findings From the Trans Youth Care Study. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 4(9), bvaa065. https://doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa065


Joseph, T., Ting, J., & Butler, G. (2019). The effect of GnRH analogue treatment on bone mineral density in young adolescents with gender dysphoria: findings from a large national cohort. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 32(10), 1077–1081. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0046


Stoffers, I. E., de Vries, M. C., & Hannema, S. E. (2019). Physical changes, laboratory parameters, and bone mineral density during testosterone treatment in adolescents with gender dysphoria. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 16(9), 1459–1468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.06.014


Delgado-Ruiz, R., Swanson, P., & Romanos, G. (2019). Systematic Review of the Long-Term Effects of Transgender Hormone Therapy on Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density and Their Potential Effects in Implant Therapy. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(6), 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060784


Stevenson, M. O., & Tangpricha, V. (2019). Osteoporosis and Bone Health in Transgender Persons. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 48(2), 421–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2019.02.006


Dobrolińska, M., van der Tuuk, K., Vink, P., van den Berg, M., Schuringa, A., Monroy-Gonzalez, A. G., García, D. V., Schultz, W. C. M. W., & Slart, R. H. J. A. (2019). Bone Mineral Density in Transgender Individuals After Gonadectomy and Long-Term Gender-Affirming Hormonal Treatment. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 16(9), 1469–1477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.06.006


Vlot, M. C., Klink, D. T., den Heijer, M., Blankenstein, M. A., Rotteveel, J., & Heijboer, A. C. (2017). Effect of pubertal suppression and cross-sex hormone therapy on bone turnover markers and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in transgender adolescents. Bone, 95, 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2016.11.008


Klink, D., Caris, M., Heijboer, A., van Trotsenburg, M., & Rotteveel, J. (2015). Bone Mass in Young Adulthood Following Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Treatment and Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment in Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100(2), E270–E275. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2439

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