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Affirming “Gender Identity” in Minors

Cohn, J. (2023). Politics Aside, Healthcare Considerations Motivate More Caution before Medical Intervention for Trans-Identifying Youth. Journal of Controversial Ideas, 3(1), 1.

Levine, S. B., & Abbruzzese, E. (2023). Current Concerns About Gender-Affirming Therapy in Adolescents. Current Sexual Health Reports.

Abbasi, K. (2023). Caring for young people with gender dysphoria. BMJ, p553.

Block, J. (2023). Gender dysphoria in young people is rising—and so is professional disagreement. BMJ, p382.

Evans, M. (2023). Assessment and treatment of a gender-dysphoric person with a traumatic history. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 1–16.

Elkadi, J., Chudleigh, C., Maguire, A. M., Ambler, G. R., Scher, S., & Kozlowska, K. (2023). Developmental Pathway Choices of Young People Presenting to a Gender Service with Gender Distress: A Prospective Follow-Up Study. Children, 10(2), 314.

Abbruzzese, E., Levine, S. B., & Mason, J. W. (2023). The Myth of “Reliable Research” in Pediatric Gender Medicine: A critical evaluation of the Dutch Studies—and research that has followed. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–27.

Giovanardi, G., Fortunato, A., Mirabella, M., Speranza, A. M., & Lingiardi, V. (2020). Gender Diverse Children and Adolescents in Italy: A Qualitative Study on Specialized Centers’ Model of Care and Network. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 9536.

Cohn, J. (2022). Some Limitations of “Challenges in the Care of Transgender and Gender-Diverse Youth: An Endocrinologist’s View.” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–17.

Clayton, A. (2022). Gender-Affirming Treatment of Gender Dysphoria in Youth: A Perfect Storm Environment for the Placebo Effect—The Implications for Research and Clinical Practice. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Kohls, G., & Roessner, V. (2022). Editorial Perspective: Medical body modification in youth with gender dysphoria or body dysmorphic disorder – is current practice coherent and evidence‐based? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, jcpp.13717.

Kulesa, R. (2022). Toward a Standard of Medical Care: Why Medical Professionals Can Refuse to Prescribe Puberty Blockers. The New Bioethics, 1–17.

Levine, S. B., Abbruzzese, E., & Mason, J. W. (2022). What Are We Doing to These Children? Response to Drescher, Clayton, and Balon Commentaries on Levine et al., 2022. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–11.

Block, J. (2022). US transgender health guidelines leave age of treatment initiation open to clinical judgment. BMJ, o2303.

Biggs, M. (2022). The Dutch Protocol for Juvenile Transsexuals: Origins and Evidence. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–21.

McIntosh, B., & Koseda, E. (2022). The interim report of the Cass review into the NHS gender identity development service: a discussion. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 28(8), 1–4.

MacKinnon, K. R., Kia, H., Salway, T., Ashley, F., Lacombe-Duncan, A., Abramovich, A., Enxuga, G., & Ross, L. E. (2022). Health Care Experiences of Patients Discontinuing or Reversing Prior Gender-Affirming Treatments. JAMA Network Open, 5(7), e2224717.

Clayton, A., D’Angelo, R., & Clarke, P. (2022). Parental consent and the treatment of transgender youth: the impact of Re Imogen. Medical Journal of Australia, mja2.51643.

Latham, A. (2022). Puberty Blockers for Children: Can They Consent? The New Bioethics, 1–24.

Wiepjes, C. M., Klink, D. T., Hellinga, I., van Trotsenburg, A. S. P., den Heijer, M., & Hannema, S. E. (2022). Transgender Girls Grow Tall: Adult Height Is Unaffected by GnRH Analogue and Estradiol Treatment. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, dgac349.

Clayton, A. (2022). Commentary on Levine: A Tale of Two Informed Consent Processes. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–8.

Roberts, C. M., Klein, D. A., Adirim, T. A., Schvey, N. A., & Hisle-Gorman, E. (2022). Continuation of Gender-affirming Hormones Among Transgender Adolescents and Adults. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, dgac251.

Balon, R. (2022). Commentary on Levine et al: Festina Lente (Rush Slowly). Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–4.

Levine, S. B., Abbruzzese, E., & Mason, J. M. (2022). Reconsidering Informed Consent for Trans-Identified Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–22.

Cass, H. (2022). Review of gender identity services for children and young people. BMJ, o629.

Bradley, S. J. (2022). Understanding Vulnerability in Girls and Young Women with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. Women, 2(1), 64–67.

Canvin, L., Hawthorne, O., & Panting, H. (2022). Supporting young people to manage gender-related distress using third-wave cognitive behavioural theory, ideas and practice. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 135910452110687.

Biggs, M. (2022). Suicide by Clinic-Referred Transgender Adolescents in the United Kingdom. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Boyd, I., Hackett, T., & Bewley, S. (2022). Care of Transgender Patients: A General Practice Quality Improvement Approach. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 10(1), 121.

Helyar, S., Jackson, L., & Ion, R. (2022). Gender dysphoria in young people: The Interim Cass Review and its implications for nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 31(23–24).

Evans, M. (2022). ‘If only I were a boy …’: Psychotherapeutic Explorations of Transgender in Children and Adolescents. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 38(2), 269–285.

Sinai, J. (2022). Rapid onset gender dysphoria as a distinct clinical phenomenon. The Journal of Pediatrics, S0022347622001858.

Littman, L. (2022). Saying that Bauer et al studied rapid onset gender dysphoria is inaccurate and misleading. The Journal of Pediatrics, S0022347622001834.

Clayton, A. (2022). The Gender Affirmative Treatment Model for Youth with Gender Dysphoria: A Medical Advance or Dangerous Medicine? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 51(2), 691–698.

Jorgensen, S. C. J., Hunter, P. K., Regenstreif, L., Sinai, J., & Malone, W. J. (2022). Puberty blockers for gender dysphoric youth: A lack of sound science. Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 1005–1007(9), 3.

Clayton, A., Malone, W. J., Clarke, P., Mason, J., & D’Angelo, R. (2021). Commentary: The Signal and the Noise—questioning the benefits of puberty blockers for youth with gender dysphoria—a commentary on Rew et al. (2021). Child and Adolescent Mental Health, camh.12533.

Hunter, P. K. (2021). Political Issues Surrounding Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender Youth. JAMA Pediatrics.

Helyar, S., Jackson, L., Patrick, L., Hill, A., & Ion, R. (2021). Gender Dysphoria in children and young people: The implications for clinical staff of the Bell V’s Tavistock Judicial Review and Appeal Ruling. Journal of Clinical Nursing, jocn.16164.

Moschella, M. (2021). Trapped in the Wrong Body? Transgender Identity Claims, Body-Self Dualism, and the False Promise of Gender Reassignment Therapy. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine, 46(6), 782–804.

Schwartz, D. (2021). Clinical and Ethical Considerations in the Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents: When Doing Less Is Helping More. Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 1–11.

Expósito-Campos, P., & D’Angelo, R. (2021). Letter to the Editor: Regret after Gender-affirmation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-

analysis of Prevalence. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open, 9(11), e3951.

Littman, L. (2021). Individuals Treated for Gender Dysphoria with Medical and/or Surgical Transition Who Subsequently Detransitioned: A Survey of 100 Detransitioners. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Levine, S. B. (2021). Reflections on the Clinician’s Role with Individuals Who Self-identify as Transgender. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Lemma, A., & Savulescu, J. (2021). To be, or not to be? The role of the unconscious in transgender transitioning: identity, autonomy and well-being. Journal of Medical Ethics, medethics-2021-107397.

Laidlaw, M. K., Van Mol, A., Van Meter, Q., & Hansen, J. E. (2021). Letter to the Editor from Laidlaw et al: “Erythrocytosis in a Large Cohort of Transgender Men Using Testosterone: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study on Prevalence, Determinants, and Exposure Years.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, dgab514.

Vandenbussche, E. (2021). Detransition-Related Needs and Support: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey. Journal of Homosexuality, 20.

Biggs, M. (2021). Revisiting the effect of GnRH analogue treatment on bone mineral density in young adolescents with gender dysphoria. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 0(0), 000010151520210180.

Kozlowska, K., McClure, G., Chudleigh, C., Maguire, A. M., Gessler, D., Scher, S., & Ambler, G. R. (2021). Australian children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: Clinical presentations and challenges experienced by a multidisciplinary team and gender service. Human Systems, 26344041211010776.

Malone, W. J., Hruz, P. W., Mason, J. W., & Beck, S. (2021). Letter to the Editor from William J. Malone et al: “Proper Care of Transgender and Gender-diverse Persons in the Setting of Proposed Discrimination: A Policy Perspective.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, dgab205.

Bewley, S., McCartney, M., Meads, C., & Rogers, A. (2021). Sex, gender, and medical data. BMJ, n735.

Giordano, S., Garland, F., & Holm, S. (2021). Gender dysphoria in adolescents: can adolescents or parents give valid consent to puberty blockers? Journal of Medical Ethics, medethics-2020-106999.

Dyer, C. (2021). Puberty blockers do not alleviate negative thoughts in children with gender dysphoria, finds study. BMJ, n356.

Biggs, M. (2021, February 3). More questions than answers about the outcomes of puberty suppression.

Walch, A., Davidge-Pitts, C., Safer, J. D., Lopez, X., Tangpricha, V., & Iwamoto, S. J. (2021). Proper Care of Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons in the Setting of Proposed Discrimination: A Policy Perspective*. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 106(2), 305–308.

Expósito-Campos, P. (2021). A Typology of Gender Detransition and Its Implications for Healthcare Providers. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy.

Malone, W., D’Angelo, R., Beck, S., Mason, J., & Evans, M. (2021). Puberty blockers for gender dysphoria: the science is far from settled. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 5(9), e33–e34.

O’Malley, S., Garner, M., Withers, R., Caspian, J., & Jenkins, P. (2021). The communication of evidence to inform trans youth health care. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, S2352464221001978.

Armitage, R. (2021). The communication of evidence to inform trans youth health care. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, S2352464221001929.

Dahlen, S., Connolly, D., Arif, I., Junejo, M. H., Bewley, S., & Meads, C. (2021). International clinical practice guidelines for gender minority/trans people: systematic review and quality assessment. BMJ Open, 11(4), e048943.

Singh, D., Bradley, S. J., & Zucker, K. J. (2021). A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12.

Kozlowska, K., Chudleigh, C., McClure, G., Maguire, A. M., & Ambler, G. R. (2021). Attachment Patterns in Children and Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

D’Angelo, R., Syrulnik, E., Ayad, S., Marchiano, L., Kenny, D. T., & Clarke, P. (2020). One Size Does Not Fit All: In Support of Psychotherapy for Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

D’Angelo, R. (2020). The man I am trying to be is not me. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 101(5), 951–970.

Bell, D. (2020). First do no harm. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 101(5), 1031–1038.

Anckarsäter, H., & Gillberg, C. (2020). Methodological Shortcomings Undercut Statement in Support of Gender-Affirming Surgery. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 764–765.

Ring, A., & Malone, W. J. (2020). Confounding Effects on Mental Health Observations After Sex Reassignment Surgery. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 768–769.

Van Mol, A., Laidlaw, M. K., Grossman, M., & McHugh, P. R. (2020). Gender-Affirmation Surgery Conclusion Lacks Evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 765–766.

Evans, M. (2020). Freedom to think: the need for thorough assessment and treatment of gender dysphoric children. BJPsych Bulletin, 1–5.

Griffin, L., Clyde, K., Byng, R., & Bewley, S. (2020). Sex, gender and gender identity: a re-evaluation of the evidence. BJPsych Bulletin, 1–9.

Pilgrim, D., & Entwistle, K. (2020). GnRHa (‘Puberty Blockers’) and Cross Sex Hormones for Children and Adolescents: Informed Consent, Personhood and Freedom of Expression. The New Bioethics, 26(3), 224–237.

Entwistle, K. (2020). Debate: Reality check – Detransitioner’s testimonies require us to rethink gender dysphoria. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, camh.12380.

Kaltiala, R., Heino, E., Työläjärvi, M., & Suomalainen, L. (2020). Adolescent development and psychosocial functioning after starting cross-sex hormones for gender dysphoria. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 74(3), 213–219.

D’Angelo, R. (2020). Who is Phoenix? Journal of Medical Ethics, 46(11), 753–754.

D’Angelo, R. (2020). The complexity of childhood gender dysphoria. Australasian Psychiatry, 28(5), 530–532.

de Vries, A. L. C. (2020). Challenges in Timing Puberty Suppression for Gender-Nonconforming Adolescents. Pediatrics, 146(4), e2020010611.

Biggs, M. (2020). Puberty Blockers and Suicidality in Adolescents Suffering from Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(7), 2227–2229.

Biggs, M. (2020). Gender Dysphoria and Psychological Functioning in Adolescents Treated with GnRHa: Comparing Dutch and English Prospective Studies. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(7), 2231–2236.

Hruz, P. W. (2020). Deficiencies in Scientific Evidence for Medical Management of Gender Dysphoria. The Linacre Quarterly, 87(1), 34–42.

Zucker, K. J. (2020). Debate: Different strokes for different folks. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 25(1), 36–37.

Hutchinson, A., Midgen, M., & Spiliadis, A. (2020). In Support of Research Into Rapid-Onset Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(1), 79–80.

Withers, Robert. (2020). Transgender medicalization and the attempt to evade psychological distress. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 65(5), 865–889.

Byng, R., & Bewley, S. (2019). Gender dysphoria: scientific oversight falling between responsible institutions should worry us all. BMJ, l6439.

Levine, S. B. (2019). Informed Consent for Transgendered Patients. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 45(3), 218–229.

Laidlaw, M. K., Van Meter, Q. L., Hruz, P. W., Van Mol, A., & Malone, W. J. (2019). Letter to the Editor: “Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 104(3), 686–687.

Heneghan, Carl, & Jefferson, Tom. (2019, February 25). Gender-affirming hormone in children and adolescents. BMJ EBM Spotlight.

Biggs, M. (2019). A Letter to the Editor Regarding the Original Article by Costa et al: Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 16(12), 2043.

Zucker, K. J. (2019). Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1983–1992.

Richards, C., Maxwell, J., & McCune, N. (2019). Use of puberty blockers for gender dysphoria: a momentous step in the dark. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 104(6), 611–612.

Churcher Clarke, A., & Spiliadis, A. (2019). ‘Taking the lid off the box’: The value of extended clinical assessment for adolescents presenting with gender identity difficulties. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(2), 338–352.

Bewley, S., Clifford, D., McCartney, M., & Byng, R. (2019). Gender incongruence in children, adolescents, and adults. British Journal of General Practice, 69(681), 170–171.

Laidlaw, M., Cretella, M., & Donovan, K. (2019). The Right to Best Care for Children Does Not Include the Right to Medical Transition. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(2), 75–77.

Spiliadis, A. (2019). Towards a gender exploratory model: Slowing things down, opening things up and exploring identity development. Metalogos Systemic Therapy Journal, 35, 1–9.

Byng, R., Bewley, S., Clifford, D., & McCartney, M. (2018). Redesigning gender identity services: an opportunity to generate evidence. BMJ, k4490.

Zucker, K. J. (2018). The myth of persistence: Response to “A critical commentary on follow-up studies and ‘desistance’ theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children” by Temple Newhook et al. (2018). International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 231–245.

Levine, S. B. (2018). Ethical Concerns About Emerging Treatment Paradigms for Gender Dysphoria. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 44(1), 29–44.

de Graaf, N. M., Carmichael, P., Steensma, T. D., & Zucker, K. J. (2018). Evidence for a Change in the Sex Ratio of Children Referred for Gender Dysphoria: Data From the Gender Identity Development Service in London (2000–2017). The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 15(10), 1381–1383.

Marchiano, L. (2017). Outbreak: On Transgender Teens and Psychic Epidemics. Psychological Perspectives, 60(3), 345–366.


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